It is the eternal need and desire of the entire HVAC industry to create innovation and create new products and ideas that can redefine the market. In the field of motors, permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) are an infinitely possible choice and have therefore received a strong focus in this field.
Application areas of PMSM
PMSM is currently the most common in high efficiency systems. Katrina Krites, shift market manager for air conditioning for commercial and residential solutions at Emerson, said that there are compressors, high-efficiency condenser fans, indoor fans, geothermal and water pumps on the market.
The efficiency advantages offered by these motors mean they can provide value for multiple market segments.
“PMSM provides energy-efficient alternatives for manufacturers, contractors, end users and homeowners,” Schamel said. “These products consume very little energy, especially when multiple motor speeds or shifting performance are required. These products also help manufacturers and contractors meet the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) regulations – Energy Star – and common The energy consumption target required for the facility discount."
In this area, the current PMSM design of Electric Motors is designed for residential applications, including indoor applications such as furnaces and air handlers, as well as outdoor applications for air conditioners and heat pumps.
“Constant airflow is an advantage of the No. 1 air conditioning system, which provides constant airflow under a variety of conditions due to the internal workings of the motor,” Schamel said. “By utilizing software algorithms that can be adjusted by the OEM, the motor provides the content that is told to be provided, no more, no less, but just right. This means that due to system changes in the structure of the home or commercial piping system, There is no over-blowing at low statics and no flow loss at higher statics. You can get what you need from a compact direct drive blower to maximize consistent temperature control. In addition, the power usage of the motor is only for HVAC. Required for the needs of the air conditioning system.
PMSM development forecast
Manufacturers are excited about the development of PMSM due to strong forecasts for the motor market over the next five years.
“We expect PMSM to continue to grow in the coming years, in part to meet the efficiency regulatory requirements for commercial and residential space,” Boyd said.
Krites added that all major system manufacturers have advanced products that use PMSM technology. “As technology changes and costs decrease, this makes PMSM applications easier, so we expect PMSM to be more widely adopted,” she said.
Schamel also expects that DOE rules for residential and commercial HVAC equipment will drive demand, and end users and utilities are interested in reducing energy consumption, making PMSM more popular.
In fact, DOE (United States Department of Energy) recently issued final regulations on certification, compliance, labeling and enforcement of electric motors and small motors. According to the US Department of Energy, it is undergoing revisions to comply with certification, compliance, and enforcement requirements for all other covered products and equipment. The rules adopted by the rule also provide specific sampling plans, certification requirements, alternative efficiency determination method requirements, and implementation regulations for electric motors and small motors.
"The US Department of Energy rules have really raised interest and awareness of these products," Schamel said. “This increased awareness not only allows people to better understand the energy-saving potential of these designs, but also increases control over temperature and humidity, lowers sound levels, consistent airflow and better filtration, and other benefits.”
Boyd pointed out that PMSM technology is also expanding into niche and transportation applications. “In addition, faster microelectronics and more efficient drives have the potential to increase adoption by reducing costs,” he said. “Considering the extra cost of efficiency, there may be limits to where this technology will be used in the future.”
An interesting focus of PMSM's future may be to increase people's concerns about cost and supply of rare earth magnets. One advantage of PMSM, says Schamel, is that they work with ferrite magnets.
"The main disadvantage of ferrite magnets is that they do not produce as much magnetic flux density as rare earth magnets when mounted on the surface of the rotor assembly, which results in lower torque density." Developed by Nidec The next generation of PMSM in the HVAC industry will use spoke rotor technology. This new rotor technology uses low cost ferrite magnets and tends to have a higher torque density than conventional surface mount rotor assemblies, which results in a lower cost motor construction.
However, the technology itself will continue to change and develop, and customers' awareness of this product is changing.
“In addition to reducing energy consumption, these products also have variable speed capabilities for other benefits, including consistent temperature control, improved humidity control, lower sound levels, consistent airflow and better air filtration.” All of these benefits Will continue to drive the continued growth of PMSM.
“PMSM technology has been around for a long time and is becoming more widely used in the HVACR industry,” Krites said. “OEMs understand this technology and have been using it in wind turbines and compressors for many years. Contractors recognize efficiency. The benefits, and more and more like advanced diagnostics, but do not seem to understand the actual technology itself.