Second, domestic and international electric drive product technology differences and evaluation
1. Domestic and foreign electric drive product technology patents
At present, China's new energy vehicle supporting motor system market is still domestically self-sufficient, and international competitors are less involved.
In terms of patents as a technical reserve, the total number of patent applications for new energy vehicle motors and drive control systems in China has ranked first in the world in the past 10 years, but the invention patents with the most technical level accounted for only 50%, far lower than the same period. The proportion of foreign invention patent applications is 90%.
Distribution of patent types of foreign new energy automobile motors
Globally, Germany, Japan, and South Korea have strong electric drive systems.
Domestic Chery Automobile, Geely Automobile Research Institute, Tsinghua University, Changan Automobile, Shanghai Zhongke Shenjiang Electric, Changan New Energy, Beijing Institute of Technology, BYD and other enterprises and research institutions have rich technical reserves.
2. Technical differences and evaluation of electric drive products at home and abroad
At present, the domestic drive motor industry has developed rapidly and the overall level has reached the international advanced level. Domestic vehicle-matched motors are basically produced locally. The gap between domestic and foreign is mainly reflected in the simultaneous development of parts and vehicles.
After more than 10 years of development in China, in the domestic commercial vehicles (including passenger cars, trucks), as well as passenger cars, special vehicles (including logistics vehicles) applications, the country has fully equipped to meet the requirements of these new energy vehicles. The development and manufacturing capabilities of the motor and motor controllers, and in terms of capacity, are fully satisfactory.
In the drive motor side power density, efficiency and other indicators, and the foreign advanced level is basically the same.
Taking the Nissan Leaf pure electric car as an example, the weight of the motor is about 60Kg, and the peak power is about 80Kw. As a benchmark product, the domestic technical level is basically at the same level in power density and efficiency.
In the “13th Five-Year Plan” national plan, it is clearly stated that the motor efficiency exceeds 4Kw/Kg. The mass production products of some domestic enterprises have achieved this goal, but compared with the most advanced product level in the world, the volume of the controller is different. More than double.
Comparison of domestic and international drive motor technology levels
From the perspective of the motor itself, China and foreign companies are basically at the same level in the positive design level, and are also expanding in the direction of high density and small size and light weight.
However, in terms of production equipment and technology, the size of a single product in China is still small, and there is a certain gap with foreign countries in terms of process level and scale.
(2) Motor controller
Domestic power electronics technology started relatively late, and power electronics has always been a bottleneck restricting the development of our domestic motor controllers.
The gap is mainly reflected in the power device technology. The power device technology does not only refer to the module, but also includes the chip development technology, packaging materials and packaging process technology, as well as the integration technology of the motor controller.
Because of the time difference of these technologies, there are some gaps between the power density level of domestic motor controllers and those of foreign mass production. In 2014, this gap was half, and the domestic controller was twice the size of similar foreign controllers.
After two years of rapid development, the power density of domestic motor controllers has increased by 50% compared with 2014, and the gap between this and foreign countries has shrunk a lot.
(3) Electric drive assembly test evaluation
From the aspect of test evaluation of electric drive assembly, it is mainly divided into electric drive system level and key material and device level. At the level of the electric drive system, including system assembly evaluation, power calibration evaluation, on-board EMC evaluation, NVH evaluation and electrical safety evaluation.
Among them, for power calibration evaluation, there are many evaluation dimensions of power density, and various boundary conditions need to be defined to ensure the objectivity of the test method.
In terms of electromagnetic compatibility, the application of the current load test is still small, and the difference between the no-load state and the actual operating condition of the drive motor is large, which will lead to a huge gap in the test results.
The NVH characteristics and electrical safety performance of the drive motor are also important aspects of the test evaluation.
In China and even in the world, automotive motors are small branches in the motor industry, but the threshold for automotive motor manufacturing is very high, especially in China, the motor drive system has a lot of gaps and shortcomings compared with foreign drive systems. Thanks to policy support and the importance that motor giants attach to the market, China's new energy auto industry is accelerating its pace of development.
Third, electric drive key enterprises summary
In general, there are three main types of market participants in the new energy vehicle motor and drive system: traditional motor manufacturers, auto parts suppliers, and vehicle companies. At a glance, the list of major enterprises in the new energy vehicle motor and drive system is not listed on the list.