Overcoming two major problems, hydrogen fuel cells can welcome the development of the industry
A few days ago, China's first batch of 28 hydrogen fuel cell buses were put into operation in Foshan and Yunfu, marking China's great achievements in hydrogen fuel cells.
At present, Toyota, Honda and other car dealers have also launched their hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, and gradually promoted. The industry also believes that the future development of hydrogen fuel cells is also quite large. Especially in the case of serious environmental pollution in China, the development of the new energy industry will be promoted to achieve the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction. From the current situation in China, hydrogen fuel cells that do not involve combustion, no mechanical loss, high energy conversion rate, and only electricity, heat and water are theoretically the most visible among the technologies that can be seen at present. Promising.
The basic working principle of a hydrogen fuel cell is to send hydrogen to the anode plate (negative electrode) of the fuel cell. After the catalyst (platinum), one electron in the hydrogen atom is separated, and the hydrogen ions (protons) that lose electrons pass through the proton exchange. The membrane reaches the cathode plate (positive electrode) of the fuel cell and recombines with oxygen atoms and hydrogen ions into water.
Based on the above principles, hydrogen fuel cells currently have significant obstacles in terms of safety and production costs relative to lithium batteries. In terms of safety, hydrogen fuel cells are more likely to leak, which is the biggest safety hazard. Once a leak occurs, hydrogen fuel cells are more likely to explode, the power of the explosion is greater, and the damage is naturally greater. In terms of cost, the most important components of hydrogen fuel cells are perfluorinated membranes and platinum catalysts. The cost of these two materials is quite high. Taking platinum as an example, the current market price is more expensive than 24K gold, and the output is small. It is very difficult to put it into the battery on a large scale. In the case that the market efficiency is still uncertain, the production cost and production pressure of the enterprise are greatly increased.
However, if the above problems can be solved, there will be huge development potential for hydrogen fuel cells. It is mentioned in "Made in China 2025" that by 2025, the reliability and economy of the fuel cell stack system will be greatly improved, and it will have certain market competitiveness compared with traditional automobiles and electric vehicles, achieving mass production and market promotion.