1. Energy change is the fundamental driving force of the third industrial revolution
The first industrial revolution that began in the mid-18th century, due to the invention and widespread application of steam engines, coal quickly replaced the firewood, which promoted the establishment and development of modern industry. Britain, which took the lead in this revolution, established the world's largest coal industry in the 90 years from 1770 to 1860. By the mid-19th century, British coal production had accounted for more than two-thirds of the world's total, and Based on this, we will accelerate the development of modern textile, steel, machinery, railway transportation and other industries, and take the lead in establishing a modern industrial system in the world.
The second industrial revolution, which began in the middle and late 19th century, promoted the establishment and development of modern industry due to the invention and wide application of electricity. It not only produced new power, electrical appliances, petroleum, chemicals, automobiles, communications, information, etc. The industrial sector has also promoted the upgrading of old industrial sectors such as textiles, steel, machinery and railway transportation. In the United States, which took the lead in this revolution, from the period of 1910 to 2010, the installed capacity of electricity, electricity, and power grids ranked first in the world. The United States also took the lead in establishing a modern industrial system in the world. Nowadays, electric energy has become one of the most important energy sources in the world. From a global perspective, the power-centric energy development and utilization pattern is accelerating and becoming the strategic direction of global energy development. From 1980 to 2012, global power consumption increased by about 200%, while oil, natural gas and coal consumption increased by only 40%, 130% and 110% respectively. The proportion of global primary energy used for power generation increased from 30% to 40%. The proportion of electric energy in terminal energy consumption has increased from 10% to around 20%.
It can be seen from the two industrial revolutions: The energy revolution has a decisive influence on industrial development. Without the breakthrough of steam engine technology, there will be no modern industry, no extensive application of electricity, modern industry can not talk about; Development has a global impact, both to promote the emergence of new industrial sectors, but also to promote the upgrading of the old industrial sector. In short, the energy revolution has a strong internal relationship with the industrial revolution and is the fundamental driving force of the industrial revolution.
After entering the new century, the energy crisis and environmental crisis brought about by large-scale development and utilization of fossil energy are prominent. The industrial civilization based on fossil energy is gradually getting into trouble. A new round of energy reform is booming around the world. This round of energy transformation is an energy revolution characterized by electricity and characterized by large-scale development and utilization of new energy. Between 2000 and 2012, the global wind power and solar power generation capacity increased from 17.93 million kilowatts and 1.4 million kilowatts to 280 million kilowatts and 100 million kilowatts, respectively, which increased by 15 times and 71 times respectively. With the arrival of a new round of energy reform, new energy technologies, intelligent technologies, information technologies, and network technologies have continuously broken through, and fully integrated with the smart grid, which is carrying and promoting the third industrial revolution. The new round of energy reform and the new round of industrial revolution are once again accompanied. This is not a historical coincidence, but because energy reform is the fundamental driving force of the industrial revolution and industrial development. Who can firmly grasp the fundamentals of energy reform? Who can The third industrial revolution seized the opportunity.
2. Developing a smart grid is the only way to promote energy transformation and the third industrial revolution
From the historical process, the industrial civilization based on the traditional utilization of fossil energy has become unsustainable. The third industrial revolution should be based on the sustainable supply of energy. Transforming energy development and utilization methods with electricity as the center has become the strategic direction of global energy development. The future energy transformation will focus on cleaner and more economical power generation, safer and more efficient configuration, more convenient and more reliable power generation. The replacement of fossil energy by the conversion of renewable energy is only a matter of time.
Power is widely used and must be realized by the power grid. In 1886, the Westinghouse Company of the United States built the world's first AC transmission system. From then on, the world power grid follows the objective of low-to-high voltage levels, small to large network scales, weak to strong configuration capabilities, and increasingly automated. The rapid development of the law can be divided into three stages. First, the primary power grid stage (from the late 19th century to the mid-20th century) is mainly based on early control technology, small unit power generation technology, characterized by low voltage and weak connection, and small isolated power grid based on urban or local area power allocation. . The second is the interconnection grid stage (from the mid-20th century to the end of the 20th century), mainly based on modern control technology, large unit stable power generation technology, large-scale long-distance transmission technology, characterized by high voltage and strong interconnection, with national or international power allocation. The ability to operate large synchronous grids. The third is the smart grid phase (since the beginning of this century), based on the rapid development of new energy technologies, distributed generation technologies, large-scale energy storage technologies, ultra-long-range ultra-large-scale transmission technologies, information network technologies and intelligent control technologies, the world power grid Enter the stage of smart grid development.
The smart grid of the future is the “energy Internet” with strong grid, wide interconnection, high intelligence and open interaction. The strong grid structure means that the power grid is scientific in planning, reasonable in structure, safe and reliable, and flexible in operation. It is suitable for large-scale access of wind power, photovoltaic power generation, distributed power, flexible conversion of power supply and power, and powerful resource allocation capability. The voltage rating of the main grid includes UHV, UHV, and high voltage. Broad interconnection means that the Internet is cross-regional and cross-industry. Intercontinental backbone network, national backbone network, regional power grid, distribution network, micro-grid coordinated development, close connection, constitute a widely covered power resource allocation system; power grid, Internet, Internet of Things and other integration, constitute a powerful social public Service Platform. The extensiveness of the interconnection has brought about a wide range of resource allocation, including extensive allocation of power resources and extensive allocation of other public service resources. Highly intelligent, it refers to the extensive use of information networks, wide-area measurement, high-speed sensing, high-performance computing, intelligent control and other technologies. The six links of power generation, transmission, substation, power distribution, power consumption and dispatching are highly intelligent and automated. Automatic pre-judgment, identification of most faults and risks, and fault self-healing. Open interaction refers to the function of the network market of the power grid, building an open, unified, competitive and orderly power market system that plays a decisive role in the allocation of energy resources, facilitating the wide interaction between users and various types of electrical equipment, and two-way interaction with the power grid. The flow flows in both directions between users and suppliers.
The smart grid is the basic platform for carrying the third industrial revolution and has a general impetus to the third industrial revolution.
The first is to promote the transformation of energy development methods. The earth's renewable energy resources are very rich. The World Energy Council estimates that the global terrestrial wind power resources exceed 1 trillion kilowatts, the solar energy resources exceed 100 trillion kilowatts, and there are abundant ocean wind energy, water energy, biomass energy, tides, geothermal resources, which can be converted into electric energy for utilization. . Based on new energy power generation technology and large-scale energy storage technology, smart grid is more adaptable to large-scale intermittent and unstable power supply. It can support large-scale development of wind energy and solar energy, and promote energy development from fossil energy to clean energy. . At the same time, in the smart grid, thousands of households can develop and utilize wind energy and solar energy, and the energy production mode shifts from centralized production to centralized production and distributed production.
The second is to promote the transformation of energy allocation methods. After hundreds of years of development, the energy bases of many countries in the world are farther away from the load center. The wind and solar energy resources are mainly concentrated in the cold, heat and desert, Gobi and other areas far from the load center. Based on ultra-long-range and ultra-large-scale transmission technology, the smart grid has a wider range of energy allocation and stronger capabilities. Only through smart grids can large-scale development of these energy bases be realized, and energy can be optimized from local balance to large-scale optimization and larger scope. Coordinate the balance of change.
The third is to promote the transformation of energy consumption patterns. With the accelerated development of distributed power sources, more and more users have the dual status of energy suppliers and consumers, and the power consumption relationship is flexible. After the widespread use of smart home appliances, users' demand for smart power and interactive services is increasing. The power flow of the traditional power grid can only be transmitted unidirectionally from the supply side to the demand side, and it is difficult to adapt to these new demands. Only the smart grid based on information network technology and intelligent control technology can adapt to the new changes in energy consumption, and promote the transformation of energy consumption from one-way reception and single-mode power consumption to interactive and flexible intelligent power consumption.
The fourth is to promote changes in production and lifestyle. The extent and extent of the impact of the smart grid on the future of society will far exceed our imagination. The large-scale development and utilization of clean energy based on smart grid will promote the low carbonization of production and life; the deep integration of smart grid with Internet of Things and the Internet will constitute a social public platform with incalculable value, energy supply, information communication, home economics, Logistics, transportation, e-commerce and other aspects of services can be based on this platform to achieve the integration of public services; smart grid will support smart homes, intelligent buildings, intelligent communities, smart city construction, and promote the wisdom of production and life.
The fifth is to promote the development of strategic emerging industries. Compared with the traditional interconnected power grid, the smart grid technology-intensive features are more prominent, and have a strong driving effect on new energy, new materials, smart equipment, electric vehicles, and the new-generation information industry. Developed countries in Europe and the United States have integrated the development of smart grid into national strategy. The EU will develop smart grid as an important pillar of the emerging economy. It is estimated that the scale of construction investment in the next 20 years will reach 500 billion euros; the United States will use smart grid as a strategic basis for economic recovery. Facilities, estimated that the construction investment in the next 20 years will reach 1.5 trillion US dollars. Most of the 20 strategic emerging industry major projects identified in China are closely related to the smart grid.