The "First Financial Daily" reporter observed that China's offshore wind power development has been extremely slow, and the price policy is not clear. The introduction of this price will undoubtedly boost the development of offshore wind power. However, under the premise of unsound coordination mechanisms such as departmental coordination mechanisms and industrial chains, the prospects for offshore wind power are still unpredictable.
China Wind Energy Association statistics show that in 2013, China's offshore wind power process was slow, with new installed capacity of only 39MW, down 69% year-on-year.
China conducted the first tender for offshore wind power projects in 2010 and identified four projects through tendering. But the progress has been very slow, and so far the four projects have not been completely completed. After the first round of bidding, the second round of offshore wind power project bidding has been rumored.
The problem of the bidding system is that the bidding determines the price of electricity. Large developers often consider the decision of the project before the circle. It can be said that the areas with better offshore wind resources are all tendered in advance, but even then, after winning the bid, the company will consider the economics to determine the progress of the project, so the project will not be dragged for a long time.
Due to the different environments, offshore wind power is more complicated in terms of fan hoisting, fan technology, professional talents, and department coordination. The cost of offshore wind power is also higher than that of land, and the average cost is twice that of land. The price of onshore wind power is more than 0.5 yuan/kWh, and the new offshore wind power price is not twice that of land electricity. the above.
Judging from the price of electricity alone, offshore wind power projects are difficult to make profits. However, it is still profitable in areas with better offshore wind resources. The so-called good resources are the areas where the annual utilization hours can reach nearly 2000 hours.
This time, the National Development and Reform Commission decided to non-tender the on-grid tariff standards for offshore wind power, and also encouraged the development of offshore wind power project owners and on-grid tariffs through market competition such as franchising. Through the tendering of offshore wind power projects, the on-grid electricity price shall be implemented at the bid price, but shall not be higher than the above-mentioned similar project standards.
The on-grid tariffs for offshore wind power projects put into operation in 2017 and beyond will take into account the changes in offshore wind power technology and project construction costs, combined with the concession bidding situation.
In addition to electricity prices, there are still many obstacles to the development of offshore wind power.
The first is that the coordination mechanisms of various departments have not been established. Offshore wind power involves many departments such as maritime, agriculture, energy, environmental protection, and transportation, and it is difficult to coordinate with each other.
Second, the industry chain is not perfect. Some companies claim to have large wind power equipment manufacturing, offshore wind power construction, submarine cable manufacturing and laying capabilities, but overall the technology and experience are not mature. The time detection of products is not enough. In the same period, the relevant standards, testing and certification systems for offshore wind power equipment in China are still not perfect, and the operation and maintenance of offshore wind power are lack of experience and talents.
The late maintenance cost of offshore wind power is another major cost considered by the developer. If there is a problem with the equipment in the later stage, the cost of maintenance in the sea will be as high as 10 million RMB, and the risk in the later period is not small.
In 2011, the lowest bidding price for the first batch of offshore wind power project concession bidding was 0.61 yuan/kWh, and the yield was very low. The on-grid tariffs of European countries with better development of offshore wind power are between 1.14 yuan/kWh and 1.6 yuan/kWh. China's electricity price is far below this standard.
Some local governments have additional subsidies, but the risks are still high. At the same time, after the reform of the approval system, the approval of wind power projects was delegated to local governments. The coastal cities have high electricity prices and have sufficient power to promote offshore wind power. However, due to comprehensive consideration, the price of offshore wind power is not in place. With the above problems, the prospects are still unclear and further observation is needed.