Recently, controversy over the waste incineration industry has continued. On the one hand, capital has been rapidly expanding, and on the one hand, disputes, doubts and even confrontation among residents around the waste incineration enterprises have made the current waste incineration market facing a difficult situation.
China’s “973” project chief scientist, education minister Jiang Scholar, and professor of energy engineering at Zhejiang University, Yan Jianhua, said that in fact, many waste incineration power plants in foreign countries are built in the city center, which reduces the distance of garbage transportation and the city. District cogeneration is a good choice. On the other hand, the construction of China's waste incineration power plants has either been put on hold by the strong opposition of the local residents, or it has been built on the outskirts of the city, and has not played its due diligence.
This is the state's policy support for waste incineration power generation technology after the implementation of the new national standard for waste incineration emissions in the history of July 1st. Industry insiders pointed out that waste incineration power generation, as a low-carbon energy technology, is a sustainable energy that conforms to the circular economy model and should be actively supported. The development prospects of the industry will become clearer.
Development twists and turns
At present, in the more than 600 cities that can be counted in China, the annual amount of domestic garbage has exceeded 160 million tons, and the equivalent of 40 million tons of power coal is calculated according to the calorific value.
“Waste incineration power generation takes up less land and can realize the energy utilization of combustible waste components.” Yan Jianhua said that the advantage of waste incineration power generation is that it can not only significantly reduce the volume of solid waste, but also effectively utilize the available energy contained in municipal solid waste. Resources. After high temperature combustion, the harmful components in the garbage are completely decomposed, which can reduce or eliminate the environmental impact of the subsequent disposal process.
Nowadays, in France, Austria, Japan, Singapore and other countries, waste incineration power generation has become the main way to solve the problem of urban domestic garbage pollution.
China's waste incineration power generation started in 1986. The first waste-to-energy plant with imported technology was selected in Shenzhen. The circulating fluidized bed waste incineration power plant developed by independent technology was built in Hangzhou in 1997. However, it was not until 2001 that local governments began to pay attention to the waste incineration power generation industry.
From 2001 to 2005, about one-third of the provinces and cities in the country completed the production of the first waste incineration power plant in the country, and the first wave of waste incineration power plants appeared in China. Encouraged by the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan for the Construction of Harmless Treatment Facilities for Urban Domestic Wastes” issued in 2007, the amount of municipal solid waste incineration in China increased by 30% in 2009 compared with 2008.
However, at the same time, a number of mass incidents similar to the construction of garbage incineration power plants by residents of Beijing Liulitun have occurred throughout the country. In this regard, Cheng Yutao, an analyst at CCID Consulting's Strategic Emerging Industry Research Center, pointed out that the growth rate of the entire industry in 2009 has slowed slightly.
Since 2010, the state has introduced a series of policies to promote the development of waste incineration power generation industry in a benign direction. At present, more than 100 waste incineration power plants have been built nationwide, and the treatment scale has exceeded 20% of the total amount of garbage collection and transportation.
Technology is not a major obstacle
Although China's waste incineration power generation industry is showing a relatively benign situation, the acceptance of many urban residents is still extremely low.
On May 11, 2014, Jiufeng Village, Zhongtai Township, Yuhang District, Hangzhou City planned to build a waste-to-energy plant, which caused concern among many people, including residents of Hangzhou City, and then the masses gathered for road closures.
In fact, according to the current development of waste incineration power generation technology, the discharge of environmental pollutants from the construction of power plants can fully meet the relevant standards.
Cheng Yutao revealed that the most critical pollutant, dioxin control technology, consists of three links: pre-incineration pretreatment, incineration process control and post-incineration disposal. The current technical conditions can fully meet national (international) emission standards.
"As long as the technology selection is reasonable, the management and operation are scientific, and the third-party supervision is timely, the current technical level can fully realize the ‘very small amount of pollutant emissions.” Yan Jianhua said.
Currently, the world's mainstream waste incineration processes include circulating fluidized bed technology and grate furnace technology. In addition to continuously improving the environmentally friendly grate-type incineration technology, China has successfully developed the integrated technology of circulating fluidized bed waste incineration with independent intellectual property rights. Yan Jianhua introduced that this technology developed by Zhejiang University is the most expensive waste incineration technology in China. In 2006, it won the second prize of National Science and Technology Progress Award.
When technology is no longer an obstacle, how to make the public understand and accept waste incineration power generation is the key to the problem. In fact, the “neighborhood” that exists in the engineering construction of waste disposal is a worldwide problem. Yan Jianhua pointed out that the promotion of waste incineration power generation requires the government and the public to move in the same direction. Local governments should follow open, fair and scientific and democratic decision-making procedures to establish a transparent, open and multi-benefit decision-making and operational supervision system.
Not "all the way"
Obviously, the NDRC included the waste incineration power generation in the Catalogue's “fuel and raw material substitution technology”. The intention is to highlight its important value as an alternative low-carbon energy source, thus opening the gap accepted by the public.
“From the perspective of energy conservation and emission reduction, it is appropriate to classify domestic waste incineration power generation into low-carbon energy technology. Waste incineration power generation is a low-carbon energy technology that should be actively supported and a sustainable energy source that is in line with the circular economy model.” Yan Jianhua said.
Under the positive guidance and support of the government, the industry believes that the obstacles encountered in building an incineration power plant in the future should be relatively reduced. What is imminent is that a large number of cities in China are facing a serious garbage siege phenomenon. Coupled with the tight supply of urban land, the existing landfill site has long been unsustainable, and it is urgent to build a large number of advanced and reliable waste incineration projects.
However, although the situation of all parties is very beneficial to waste incineration, it does not mean that the industry will be "smooth". Hou Yuxuan, a researcher in the environmental protection industry of China Investment Consulting, said that at present, the level of technical equipment in China's domestic waste incineration power generation is still low, basically belonging to the direct combustion method. Many waste incinerators have low temperature, which causes some dioxin to fail to fully decompose and cause secondary pollution outside the furnace.
In addition, the gap between China's waste classification and developed countries is large, which is not conducive to the formation of differential treatment, which is not conducive to improving the efficiency of incineration.
Therefore, it is still necessary for many parties to work together to make waste incineration power generation truly form an industrial chain in China and play its due role in low-carbon environmental protection. Yan Jianhua said: "The government should do a good job in policy matching and standard setting. Research institutes should actively and thoroughly study the characteristics of China's waste to achieve the best applicable technology for clean incineration, efficient energy conversion and low pollutant emissions."
In view of the obvious country characteristics of urban domestic waste, the incineration technology applicable in developed countries may not be suitable for treating domestic garbage. Therefore, industry insiders pointed out that the government should encourage the use of high-tech with independent intellectual property rights when organizing project bidding.
State-owned enterprises and private enterprises should implement the same fair policies and subsidies to guide the orderly development of the industry, and learn from the experience of developed countries, and vigorously carry out popular science education and publicity to improve the public scientific quality.
Development needs public understanding
It is understood that in the past 10 years, with the rapid development of waste incineration technology, waste incineration power generation will continue to develop rapidly. Zhang Yi, dean of the Shanghai Academy of Environmental Engineering Design Science, said that the total number of domestic garbage in more than 600 cities nationwide has exceeded 160 million tons per year. The domestic waste incineration power generation industry is conservatively estimated to have more than 200 billion yuan of market development space. .
However, the sound development of the waste incineration power generation industry requires public acceptance and understanding. In the process of industry development, there have been many mass incidents similar to the public's opposition to the construction of waste incineration power plants. On May 11 this year, Jiufeng Village, Zhongtai Township, Yuhang District, Hangzhou City planned to build a waste incineration power plant, which caused concern among many people including Hangzhou urban residents, and then there were incidents such as crowd gathering and road closure.
Therefore, another purpose of the promotion of waste incineration power generation technology is to appeal to the people to objectively and correctly understand the waste incineration treatment and scientifically respond to the garbage dilemma.
In fact, the reporter almost never smelled bad or strange in the circular economy industrial park in Chaoyang District, Beijing. Surrounded by greenery around the park, it is a small park. More importantly, the park has adopted a seal protection for the operation of the garbage pit and a safe treatment of waste water and waste gas. "In addition, before the garbage is transported to the incinerator, in order to ensure the pollution-free treatment of the garbage, the municipal sanitation vehicle adopts full-closed transportation operation. Once there is any pollution and dust pollution, the city management and supervision bureau will be responsible for law enforcement management." Miao Guiqing said. At the same time, in order to open up the breakthroughs accepted by the people and strive for public understanding and support, the park has also adopted various publicity, discussion, and public reception on Thursday to open public reception and other forms of scientific popularization of domestic waste incineration power generation technology.
Yan Jianhua, chief scientist of the national "973" project in the field of solid waste disposal in China and professor of the Department of Energy Engineering at Zhejiang University, pointed out that the "adjacentism" in the construction of waste disposal is a worldwide problem. Promoting waste incineration power generation requires the government and the public to move in the same direction. Local governments should follow open, fair and scientific and democratic decision-making procedures, and establish transparent, open and multi-benefit decision-making and operational supervision systems to ensure the healthy development of the waste incineration power generation industry.